For Germans, many of whom have generally had fond feelings for the United States, the news on TV on Sept. 11 was devastating.
"There was a lot of solidarity among Germans shortly after the incidents, but also a lot of fear about what kind of threat and how to react."
But soon serious doubts surfaced in Germany about US tactics in the fight against this new threat.
"Once the US decided to launch the war on terror, there was a lot of skepticism whether this was the right decision."
When the US led a coalition into Iraq in 2003, that skepticism turned into vocal opposition, from both the German people and the government. US-German relations plunged to their lowest point since the end of World War II. But despite its disagreement with the US, Berlin itself was not very clear on how it planned on facing this new threat. Klaus Jansen is the president of Germany's criminal investigators' union.
We tried to tackle the new problem of fighting fundamentalist Islamic terrorism with the old tools with we have from cold war. I think the five years showed that this is not a nice concept to have. We have to develop new tools and new approaches to infiltrate al Qaeda.
"They also made the hurdles for some of the other measures taken with regard to observing people but also with regards to looking into suspects' lives.
Thevessen says Germany's strong privacy laws are just one of the reasons terrorists have found the country an appealing place. The Sept. 11 attacks were carried out by a group of Islamic fundamentalists who lived in Hamburg in the years before 2001. Thevessen says German asylum rules have made it easier for people from Islamic countries to settle here while keeping their sometimes radical political views.
And the Number 2 reason is that Germany has many universities which offer programs which have a very good reputation and there are many people from Arab and Asian countries who are looking to come to Germany to get their education here. And the strange things is they might not have been extremists in their home country, but when they come to Germany and live in the west, there is an increased danger that they feel attracted to extremist ideologies. "
"I really got the impression now terrorism is here. My 13-year-old daughter asked me, daddy, I heard the news, can I use the Deutsche Bundesbahn to go to school anymore? And so terrorism really sunk into my family and that's a very disappointing feeling. I think personally I'm disappointed with the way we tried to NOT cope with that problem."
But after the failed bomb plot, Germany appears to be stepping up its efforts. Last week, the county's interior ministers did come to a compromise agreement on creating a suspect databank. Current Chancellor Angela Merkel's relationship with George W. Bush is much better than that of her predecessor, so she will likely work more closely with the US on anti-terror measures. Still, that brings with it risks. Berlin is preparing to send troops to Lebanon as part of a UN peacekeeping force. Five years after Sept 11, that could put Germany more than even right in the middle of terrorists' sights. For Deutsche Welle Radio, I'm KJ in Berlin.Listen to the report:
An almost immediate impact of the attacks on the US in 2001 in Britain was a move to bring in legislation giving police wider powers, notably to act on suspicion of terrorist activity. Some see such initatives on the part of the British government as sensible and effective prevention steps. Others have raised concerns over abuse of rights.
The case of France. Feeling less under threat because seen to be less supportive of the United States than some of its neighbours, France has also seen an array of tough new anti-terror laws. And according to some opinion polls, more people are more wary of their Muslim neighbours in France in the wake of 9/11.
Network Europe reporters ask ordinary citizens what they think about how 9/11 has affected their lives. From living in fear to “nothing has changed”, to embracing religion, or embracing the United States, depending on who you are and where you are.
Polish people feel vulnerable and wonder if they are could be on a terrorist hit-list because they have shown support for the US war on terror. So the level of suspicion is high and tighter anti-terror laws are on the cards.
In Sweden’s civil liberties take a knock after the authorities take preventive measures against possible terrorist attacks. There’s serious debate about whether it’s necessary to snoop into people’s internet research or phone calls. And self-censorship raises its ugly head.
We reported on surfing on the river in Munich but the city is better known for other liquid-based fun. As thousands of visitors to the legendary annual beer festival will testify. But what is the festival called? You can email us your answer. The address is email@example.com.
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